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Portraits by Netherlandish artists reveal a range of approaches to characterisation, from the delicacy of Catharina van Hemessen to the boldness of Lucas van Leyden and the frankness of Gossaert. Other pictures by artists of the period, such as Marinus van Reymerswaele, use some of the conventions of portraiture to make satirical observations. Pieter Bruegel the Elder is represented here by his tightly focused Adoration of the Kings, a masterpiece of speedy and skilful manipulation of oil paint, as well as an extraordinary study in characterisation.

The room also includes examples of landscape painting, in which many Netherlandish artists specialised in this period.