Born in Paris, Goeneutte enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1872, studying first under Isidore Pils, who died in 1875, and then under his replacement, Henri Lehmann. In the mid-1870s he met Marcellin Desboutin, who taught him etching. He was associated with the Impressionists, especially Renoir, and in the 1880s painted Parisian scenes, from famous landmarks to boulevard subjects. He also worked in Brittany, Normandy and Bordeaux. In his later years he settled in Auvers-sur-Oise.