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The Use of Gilded Tin in Giotto's 'Pentecost'

Rachel Billinge and Dillian Gordon
Technical Bulletin Volume 29, 2008


The technique of Giotto’s panel painting of the Pentecost was the subject of a detailed study published in 1989. Subsequent examination under a more powerful stereobinocular microscope has revealed the use of gilded tin for the rays of the Holy Spirit, now almost completely lost and replaced with shorter painted rays. The article discusses the changes made to the painting during its execution and subsequently, and describes how the tin was identified. Possible similar changes to other panels in the series are mentioned and the relationship with other works by Giotto is briefly discussed.


degradation, fourteenth-century painting, gilded tin, Giotto, gold leaf, Italian, metal leaf, mordant, panel painting, Pentecost, repaint, stagno dorato, tin leaf

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The Use of Gilded Tin in Giotto's 'Pentecost', Rachel Billinge and Dillian Gordon (PDF 6.75MB)

To cite this article we suggest using

Billinge, R., Gordon, D. 'The Use of Gilded Tin in Giotto's "Pentecost"'. National Gallery Technical Bulletin Vol 29, pp 76–80.

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