Born in Massa di Carrara in 1380, Bernardino took over the Hospital of S. Maria della Scala in Siena when the staff there had been wiped out by plague. In 1402 he joined the Franciscan Order, and began a career of preaching. His oratory drew congregations of many thousands. He died in 1444 in Aquila while on a preaching tour of Italy. He used the monogram of Jesus, IHS, as a badge and is usually depicted carrying this symbol. He was canonised in 1450 and his feast day is 20th May.