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Jupiter (Zeus in Greek) was the most powerful of the gods of Greek mythology. He was the god of the skies and the weather, who used thunderbolts to strike down his enemies. His attributes are a thunderbolt and a sceptre.

Most commonly, Jupiter is associated with the seduction of mortals and lesser gods, often achieved by changing his form. His wife Juno is often shown discovering his liaisons, (see for example Lastman's version of 'Juno discovering Jupiter with Io'). 'The Rape of Ganymede', by Mazza, shows another dramatic example of his infidelity.

Other subjects involving Jupiter include his nurture and his infancy - a popular pastoral theme for painters.