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A standard is a flag or banner which could be embroidered or painted. Standards were sometimes decorated with a family crest, the emblem of a guild, or the symbol of a patron saint of a city or country. They were often used in public celebrations. Some works in the Collection, such as Lippo di Dalmasio's 'Madonna of Humility' and Bergognone's 'Male Members of a Confraternity' may have formed part of confraternity banners.