Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566 - 1633), Archduchess of Austria, was the daughter of Philip II of Spain by whom she was made joint Sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands with her husband, the Archduke Albert, in 1598.
A 'Portrait of the Archduke Albert' forms a pendant to this work. Both compositions were engraved in 1615 as after Rubens. Rubens was Isabella and Albert's court painter and became the Infanta's trusted adviser after her husband's death in 1621. These portraits were probably painted in the artist's studio after prototypes by the master that no longer survive.