Peasants under the Trees at Dawn
Oil on canvas, lined, 27.3 x 38.8 cm (visible surface; brown paper covers the turnover edge and obscures up to 0.5 cm of the front of the canvas). Signed bottom right: COROT (slightly worn). (fig.1)
It is probable that Corot stretched the canvas himself, although the original stretcher has been replaced. On the back of the present one the following is written in pen: ‘Appart(i)ent à Mme. Sanchez Toledo/SANCHE TOLEDO y ABREU’. It is then crossed out and the following is substituted: ‘M TONY MAYER – PARIS’.1 The letters ‘J.D.’ are written in red crayon.
Materials and technique2
The painting has a white ground containing lead white, calcium (calcium carbonate, from the addition of chalk as an extender) and a trace of aluminium. In a sample of the left-hand foreground there is a thin pink-red underlayer between the ground and paint layer.
Traces of underdrawing in graphite are visible in an infrared photograph (fig. 2) in the branches of the tree at centre and the buildings in the background on the right. Also evident from the infrared photograph is that the figures of the man sawing wood and the woman gathering twigs were added at a late stage, as the branches of the tree can be seen to pass behind them. There was a second horse to the right of the present one, on the far right of the composition, again visible in the infrared photograph, which was at some stage painted out.
There is evidence from cross-sections of paint that areas, particularly the foreground, trees and buildings, were reworked by the artist on a number of occasions.3 The whole is thickly and solidly painted, with a smooth application of paint which shows no trace of brushstrokes. As usual Corot has painted the sky last. It has been brought around the roofs of the houses at the right, but visible between the sky and the edges of the roofs are the reserves of brown ébauche (initial sketch) underneath.
The uneven edges of the off-white thick paint combined with the hint of the underpaint serve to fragment the outlines and heighten the sense of the buildings dissolving in the light (fig 3).
The diffuse outlines caused by the juxtaposition of sky and ébauche are also particularly evident around the bushes in the right background. Around the central tree, where the sky has been brought around, further branches have been added on top of the landscape on both sides, another practice followed by Corot throughout his life. They are painted in a very distinct dark brown paint with silvery foliage, spreading across the tall building on the extreme left (fig 4).
The coloured greys which Corot began to use from the 1830s onwards here contribute to the misty atmosphere. The mauve-grey of the middle distance contains cobalt blue and vermilion mixed with smaller amounts of lead white and fine black.4 The grey-blue highlights from the leaves are also examples of Corot’s ‘coloured greys’, consisting of cobalt blue mixed with red lake, vermilion and other pigments. Corot made use of ready-made greens, but true to his usual practice toned them with other colours.
To paint the foliage of the tree Corot used a ready-prepared chrome green (a mixture of chrome yellow and Prussian blue), mixed with red lake, yellow, vermilion and cobalt blue. The sky is cobalt blue, Corot’s preferred pigment for skies, mixed with lead white.
Analysis has shown the presence of heat-bodied linseed oil as the binding agent. Of all the binding oils linseed has the best drying properties, which are enhanced by the heat-bodying process.
Conservation and condition
The painting has not been treated by the Gallery since it was acquired in 1977. In general it is in good condition apart from prominent craquelure over all the paint surface, some of the cracks having been retouched. There are engrained remnants of an old discoloured varnish, especially near the edges, and the present varnish is also slightly discoloured. The signature is slightly worn. The paint surface is somewhat flattened by the lining.
1. For Mayer see under Provenance.
2. For a full discussion of materials and technique see article by S. Herring, ‘Six Paintings by Corot in the National Gallery: Methods, Materials and Sources’, National Gallery Technical Bulletin, 30, 2009.
3. Noted by Leighton 1996, pp. 26–7, and by Roy 1999, p. 333. In fact Robaut had already surmised that the study had been painted in six sittings. See Collection Robaut, vol. 3, plate 157.
4. See Roy 1999, pp. 330–42 (340). Avignon from the West also has this mixture of vermilion and cobalt blue mixed with white at the horizon.
5. Her attitude anticipates that of the woman gathering foliage from the tree in Corot’s Souvenir de Mortefontaine of 1864 (Paris, Musée du Louvre). This is noted by Geiger 1973–5, p. 334.
6. See, for example, the description of Morvan by Augustus Hare: ‘the wild district of Morvan (Montagne noire), which has a Celtic population, weaving the ancient saga, and speaking a patois incomprehensible to the inhabitants of the plain’. A.J.C. Hare, South-Eastern France, London 1890, p. 74, quoted in Clarke 1991, pp. 65–6.
7. See K. Baedeker, Le Nord-Est de la France. De Paris aux Ardennes, aux Vosges et au Rhône, Leipzig 1914, pp. 370–1.
8. R293. Lot 4 of sale, property of the Greentree Foundation, from the collection of Mr and Mrs John Hay Whitney, Sotheby’s, New York, 5 May 2004.
9. See Berte-Langereau 1993, pp. 8–9 and 17. The compiler is grateful to Berte-Langereau for further clarifying the view of NG 6439 in correspondence.
10. See Balleret 1997, p. 16, who states that it was this marriage that introduced Corot to the area. While it is true that he stayed with them in Lormes in 1834, he had already visited the area in 1831.
11. Clark 1966, p. 94. However, not all writers praise this picture. Adams (Adams 1994 p. 122) points out the fragmentation of the figures by the central clump of trees and calls the composition clumsy and disordered. ‘Neither well finished nor picturesque, it would have fallen within the very lowest category of landscape painting.’
12. Exceptions to this are View of Lormes (R421), jointly owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Mrs Walter Mendelsohn, see A. Schoeller and J. Dieterle, Corot. Premier Supplement à l’Oeuvre de Corot par A.. Robaut et Moreau-Nélaton, Paris 1948, no. 16, and Morvan Landscape (R878), Strasbourg, Musée des Beaux-Arts. The panoramic view and long format of these paintings are reminiscent of such paintings as Avignon from the West.
13. See Toussaint, Monnier and Servot, Paris 1975, p. 49.
14. William Wyld (1806–1889) was a follower of Richard Parkes Bonington (1802–1828) who worked and exhibited mainly in France. Apart from this gift, no other details are known about any contact or friendship between Wyld and Corot.
15. According to F. Lugt, Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques, The Hague, 1938–87, III, 1964, p. 492, none of the catalogues in existence are annotated with buyers’ names.
16. There is a gap in the provenance from 1890 to 1930. It is possible that the painting belonged at one point to Mme Sanchez Toledo whose name appears on the stretcher. It is also possible that the stretcher was reused.
17. NG 6439 was in the possession of Tony Mayer when it was included in the Corot exhibition at the Galerie Daber in 1951. A letter in the Daber Archives requesting the loan of the painting is dated 12 March 1949. There is also a letter in the same archives from Tony Mayer giving the title of the painting in Bazin ‘à l’époque où il appartenait à la collection Albert S. Henraux’. The author is grateful to M. Blondeau for giving access to the Daber Archives.
18. Its present location is unknown. There is a photograph of it in the Gallery dossier for NG 6439.