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Jakob Ferdinand Voet: 'Cardinal de Retz'
Jean-François-Paul de Gondi (1613 - 1679) became a cardinal in 1652. He was a leader in the troubles of the Fronde, 1648-52, and travelled in Europe between 1654 and 1662. The painting has in the past been attributed to Philippe de Champaigne. It is dated, by comparison with other engraved portraits of the sitter, to the 1660s.

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