Rudolf II (1552 - 1612) became Holy Roman Emperor in 1576. His court at Prague was an important centre for scientific studies and the arts. He also took an interest in alchemy and the occult. The artistic style particularly associated with his court is Mannerism. Among his court painters were Bartolomeus Spranger, Roelandt Savery and Hans von Aachen and Giuseppe Arcimboldo. The first three are represented in the Collection. Four ceiling paintings by Veronese in the Collection are thought to have been commissioned by the emperor.