Wouwermans' battle scenes were almost certainly never intended to represent specific engagements. Another version of this picture (St Petersburg, Hermitage) was, however, described as showing a battle between Poles and Swedes. The horsemen advancing from the left have fur-trimmed caps and curved swords, and the figure in the centre wields a battle hammer. Their opponents have blue flags, which may be intended to be the Swedish colours. The two countries were at war from 1655 to 1660: the Swedes invaded Poland but despite early successes were eventually driven out.
The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5DN